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Somilie States of Somalia Map VideoLaura Pausini - Simili (Official Video)
Longitudinally, Somalia is located entirely in the Eastern Hemisphere. It has land borders with only two countries; Kenya to the southwest and Ethiopia to the west.
Somalia Bordering Countries : Kenya , Ethiopia. Regional Maps : Map of Africa. The blank outline map respresents mainland Somalia.
The country also has several oceanic islands which cannot be observed on this map. The country is said to be shaped like a tilted number seven. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest.
Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa 's mainland. Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million   and has been described as Africa's most culturally homogeneous country.
Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the south. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial center.
In the late 19th century, Somalia was colonized by European powers, Britain and then Italy. The Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in and established the Somali Democratic Republic , which collapsed 22 years later, in , with the onset of the Somali Civil War.
During this period most regions returned to customary and religious law. In the early s, a number of interim federal administrations were created.
By mid, the insurgents had lost most of the territory they had seized, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions began.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic period. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here.
According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic -speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat "original homeland" in the Nile Valley ,  or the Near East.
The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back approximately 5, years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows.
Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2, years old.
Ancient pyramidical structures, mausoleums , ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall , are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula.
In the classical era , the Macrobians , who may have been ancestral to Somalis, established a powerful tribal kingdom that ruled large parts of modern Somalia.
They were reputed for their longevity and wealth, and were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men".
According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II , upon his conquest of Egypt in BC, sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission.
The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based on his stature and beauty, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to draw it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire.
From there, it spread to Egypt and the Maghreb. They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo.
After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, Arab and Somali merchants agreed with the Romans to bar Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula  to protect the interests of Somali and Arab merchants in the lucrative commerce between the Red and Mediterranean Seas.
The source of the cinnamon and other spices is said to have been the best-kept secret of Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world; the Romans and Greeks believed the source to have been the Somali peninsula.
Islam was introduced to the area early on by the first Muslims of Mecca fleeing prosecution during the first Hejira with Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Zeila being built before the Qiblah towards Mecca.
It is one of the oldest mosques in Africa. It was thus flanked to the south by the Ajuran Empire and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire.
In , the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Abyssinian emperor Amda Seyon I 's march toward the city.
Adal's headquarters were again relocated the following century, this time southward to Harar. From this new capital, Adal organised an effective army led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Ahmad "Gurey" or "Gran"; both meaning "the left-handed" that invaded the Abyssinian empire.
During the Ajuran Sultanate period, the sultanates and republics of Merca , Mogadishu , Barawa , Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce, with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia ,  Persia, Egypt, Portugal, and as far away as China.
Vasco da Gama , who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses several storeys high and large palaces in its centre, in addition to many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory.
Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.
Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century,  with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade.
In the early modern period, successor states to the Adal Sultanate and Ajuran Sultanate began to flourish in Somalia.
They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires. His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade.
He also received presents from and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans.
Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th-century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast.
The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.
In the late 19th century, after the Berlin Conference of , European powers began the Scramble for Africa , which inspired the Dervish leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.
In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation.
Hassan issued a religious ordinance stipulating that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalis, Greater Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered to be kafir , or gaal.
He soon acquired weapons from the Ottoman Empire, Sudan, other Islamic and Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia.
In addition, he gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his forces. Hassan's Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish revolt was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood.
It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1, Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.
He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottomans and the Germans. In , the Dervish movement collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate.
The dawn of fascism in the early s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy.
Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory.
Fascist Italy , under Benito Mussolini , attacked Abyssinia Ethiopia in , with an aim to colonize it.
The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations , but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia.
On 3 August , Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland , and by 14 August, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British.
A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland.
They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq , Dhulbahante , and Warsangali clans prominently participating.
To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in Western political education and self-government.
These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have.
Although in the s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated.
The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would later cause serious difficulties integrating the two parts.
Meanwhile, in , under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,  the British returned the Haud an important Somali grazing area that was presumably protected by British treaties with the Somalis in and and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French.
Britain included the conditional provision that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area.
This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over. A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti then known as French Somaliland in , on the eve of Somalia's independence in , to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.
The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.
The majority of those who voted 'no' were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi , Vice President of the Government Council.
Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. On 1 July , the two territories united to form the Somali Republic , albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.
On 20 July and through a popular referendum , was ratified popularly by the people of Somalia under Italian trusteeship, But most of the people from the former Somaliland Protectorate didn't participated the referendum, due to the marginalization graveness made on their rights of power sharing of the unity government.
Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia. On 15 October , while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod , Somalia's then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards.
The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate.
In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world , eventually joining the Arab League in The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances.
Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production.
While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist.
In July , the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia , along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti.
After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20, Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg regime.
By , the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere.
It eventually settled on the Soviets' Cold War arch-rival, the United States , which had been courting the Somali government for some time.
All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.
A new constitution was promulgated in under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship.
The regime was weakened further in the s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. The government became increasingly authoritarian , and resistance movements , encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War.
The moral authority of Barre's government was gradually eroded, as many Somalis became disillusioned with life under military rule.
By the mids, resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions.
The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative centre of Hargeisa , a Somali National Movement SNM stronghold, among the targeted areas in During , in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four.
Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time to five U.
The price of khat , imported daily from Kenya, was also five U. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals.
A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange.
At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect.
Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency. Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned.
During daytime in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare. Alleged late-night operations by government authorities, however, included "disappearances" of individuals from their homes.
In , the Barre administration was ousted by a coalition of clan-based opposition groups, backed by Ethiopia's then-ruling Derg regime and Libya. Although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognized by any foreign government.
Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's regime. Aidid boycotted the first meeting in protest.
Due to the legitimacy bestowed on Muhammad by the Djibouti conference, he was subsequently recognized by the international community as the new President of Somalia.
Djibouti, Egypt , Saudi Arabia and Italy were among the countries that officially extended recognition to Muhammad's administration.
Power was instead vied with other faction leaders in the southern half of Somalia and with autonomous sub-national entities in the north.
In the early s, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, Somalia began to be characterized as a " failed state ".
Rotberg similarly posits that the state failure had preceded the ouster of the Barre administration. United Nations Security Council Resolution was unanimously passed on 3 December , which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States.
Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1, civilians and militia were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October In August , Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
Following the outbreak of the civil war, many of Somalia's residents left in search of asylum. According to the UNHCR , there were around , registered refugees from the country in neighboring states as of A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war was the emergence of piracy in the unpatrolled Indian Ocean waters off of the coast of Somalia.
The phenomenon partly arose as an attempt by local fishermen to protect their livelihood from illegal fishing by foreigners.
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation's new Transitional National Government TNG , an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government.
Its mandate ended at the same time. The Transitional Federal Government TFG was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August , when its tenure officially ended.
The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch.
The government was headed by the President of Somalia , to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister.
However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively. In , the Islamic Courts Union ICU , an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a.
The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops , African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.
The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in that the federal government controlled most of the country.
Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab , regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia.
Throughout and , Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia.
At the end of , the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. By January , Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops.
Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country.
Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.
In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had been mandated to do.
The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation.
With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February to assume full control of the southern half of the country.
As a truce, in March , Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.
During the coalition government's brief tenure and one year afterwards, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, the Fund For Peace 's Fragile States Index FSI; formerly known as the Failed States Index listed Somalia on top for six consecutive years between and The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution.
Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks.
In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions.
According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.
Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers required the Premier's consent.
In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement saw the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August In October , a coordinated operation, Operation Linda Nchi between the Somali and Kenyan militaries and multinational forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.
As part of the official "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government's interim mandate ended on 20 August The Federal Government of Somalia , the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was later established in August By , Somalia was no longer at the top of the fragile states index , dropping to second place behind South Sudan.
In October , more than people were killed by twin bomb explosions in Somalia's capital city Mogadishu. Somalia is officially divided into eighteen regions gobollada , singular gobol ,  which in turn are subdivided into districts.
The regions are:. Northern Somalia is now de facto divided up among the autonomous regions of Puntland which considers itself an autonomous state and Somaliland a self-declared but unrecognized sovereign state.
In central Somalia, Galmudug is another regional entity that emerged just south of Puntland. Jubaland in the far south is a fourth autonomous region within the federation.
The Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states officially Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Somalia is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.
The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland to the northwest.
Prime Minister Omar Sharmarke, who has been criticized for failing to defeat the Shabab and who has been at odds with President Ahmed, resigned in September He was succeeded in November by Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed.
Piracy continued to plague the waters off Somalia and other parts of eastern Africa into In February, Somalia pirates killed four Americans who were sailing on their yacht in the piracy-laden water off the coast of Somalia.
The summer of brought drought to a country already laid low by nearly constant conflict, resulting in a UN-declared famine in two regions in southern Somalia.
With tens of thousands of Somalis dead of malnutrition and its related causes and ten million more at risk, those who could, fled, trying to reach neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia for help.
The figure is double early estimates. The report cites the delayed response by donor nations and the Shabab for not allowing the delivery of aid the affected areas.
After more than 20 years and 17 attempts at forming a internationally recognized central government, the Somali parliament held its inaugural session on Aug.
Rife with disorganization, corruption, and concerns for the safety of the participants, the swearing in took place at the airport in Mogadishu and was watched over by African Union troops.
This landmark occasion was followed by the election of former labour minister Mohamed Osman Jawa as speaker on Aug.
In September, parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, an advocate for civil rights, as president. He prevailed over incumbent Sharif Sheikh Ahmed in the second round of voting.
Many observers expressed hope and optimism that Hassan, who is considered above corruption, would set the country on a path torward stability.
Just two days after he became president, he survived an assassination attempt by a member of the militant group Shabab. Shabab was dealt a severe blow in Sept.
The incursion followed several weeks of air and naval assaults by Kenya on key Shabab positions in Kismayu. The city was the last Shabab stronghold, and the militant group used the port to bring in weapons and raise money by charging hefty import fees.
Outmatched militarily, the Shabab withdrew from Kismayu, but said they would take their fight underground, saying Kismayu will "be transformed from a peaceful city governed by Islamic Shariah into a battle zone.
Parliament approved the appointment —0. In January , the U. Shabab militants attacked an upscale mall in Nairobi, Kenya, beginning on Sept.
The siege lasted for four days, with persistent fighting between government troops and militants. The attack was meticulously planned, and the militants proved to be challenging for the government to dislodge from the Westgate mall.
Shabab said the attack was in retaliation for the Kenyan military's presence in Somalia. Days after the siege ended, U.
Somalis are mostly camel or goat herders, and depend on their livestock to live. In Somalia there are limited sources of drinking water and grazing land, and disputes over grazing rights, water rights, or land in general can lead to fighting between families.
Because of the clan system, the families involved will call on their clan for help, leading to a clan war.
The discovery of oil and minerals in Somalia, as well as the power and money associated with politics and business, has created more opportunities for families to get ahead, and has also created more reasons for families to have disputes.
Because Somalia does not have a working legal system, the only help a family in Somalia has to solve a dispute with another family is to get their clan involved.
The only solution to the clan wars in Somalia is a working legal system, but the only group who has succeeded in creating one is the Islamic Courts Union.
Unfortunately the Islamic Courts Union was accused of being terrorists and Ethiopia invaded Somalia to topple their government and put the government they created in power instead.
Somalis started herding camel and goats about 4, years ago, and they remain mostly herders today. Visitors from as far away as China visited Somalia, such as Zheng He.
The king of Ethiopia then took part of Ifat and added it to his kingdom, and made Ifat pay him lots of money once a year. The remains of Ifat put their kingdom back together again and renamed it Adal.
About a hundred years later, the King of Adal was deposed by an influential warlord by the name of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi , who had lots of influence with Somali clans across the north.
He declared a Jihad against Ethiopia, brought together a huge army that included Turkish musketeers and Somali cavalry. The Somali cavalry were especially deadly because they could shoot arrows while riding their horses, something that the Mongol hordes and Japanese Samurai are also famous for.
Ahmad chose a bad time, however, because the Portuguese Empire was muscling into East Africa. They had taken over the whole east African coast up to Baraawe, and were trying to take over Mogadishu.
The Portuguese decided to help out the Ethiopians because the Ethiopians were Christians and the Portuguese did not like Muslims. Ahmad had taken over more than half of Ethiopia when a troop of Portuguese musketeers showed up to help the Ethiopians out.
One Portuguese musketeer managed to shoot Ahmad himself, killing him. A lot of the Somali cavalry was only there because of Ahmad, so the Jihad ended and Ethiopia wound up invading Adal.
The Turks had to send an army to stop them from taking over Zeila, and Adal ended up becoming part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Somalia lies astride the Equator, but unlike typical climates at this latitude , conditions in Somalia range from arid in the northeastern and central regions to semiarid in the northwest and south.
The climatic year comprises four seasons. The gu , or main rainy season , lasts from April to June; the second rainy season, called the dayr , extends from October to December.
Each is followed by a dry season —the main one jilaal from December to March and the second one xagaa from June to September.
During the second dry season, showers fall in the coastal zone. Long-term mean annual rainfall is less than 4 inches mm in the northeast and about 8 to 12 inches to mm in the central plateaus.
The southwest and northwest receive an average of 20 to 24 inches to mm a year. While the coastal areas experience hot, humid, and unpleasant weather year-round, the interior is dry and hot.
Somalia has some of the highest mean annual temperatures in the world. Temperature maxima are even higher inland, but along the coast of the Indian Ocean temperatures are considerably lower because of a cold offshore current.
The average afternoon high at Mogadishu, for example, ranges from the low 80s F mid- to upper 20s C in July to the low 90s F low 30s C in April.
Somalia Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.President Donald Trump has ordered the majority of US troops to leave Somalia "by early ," in just the latest major military policy decision being taken in the final days of the Trump. President Donald Trump has ordered the Pentagon to remove the majority of the U.S. military troops in Somalia from the country, according to a Pentagon statement. The order changes the mission. The Trump administration will pull virtually all of the US’s roughly troops in Somalia out of the country just five days before President-elect Joe Biden takes office. The withdrawal. Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia is a sovereign country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. But Somalia experts warned that Mr. Trump’s decision to pull the plug now, as Somalia faces parliamentary elections this month and a presidential vote in February, was a recipe for chaos and.